Before I start, I like to make clear I did not invent, discover or the owner of this new nitrogen cycle discuss here. I only conducted the test to validate the mfg’s claim on the product whether it works or not. After almost a year of field testing I am now confident to say this Aerobic Nitrogen Cycle does work and the result can be duplicated time after time again, as long as a strict protocol are followed. Before we begin, we must first understand how a nitrogen cycle works. The normal nitrogen cycle starts this way: You have NH3(Ammonia), NH4OH (Ammonium Hydroxide) and NH4+ (Ammonium Ion) this is know as Total Ammonia (TA). During the first stage of nitrogen cycle TA is break down and converted to NO2 (Nitrite), this process is an Anaerobic Process which required oxygen. Nitrite is then further break down to NO3 (Nitrate) then finally converted to N2 (Nitrogen Gas), this process is an Anaerobic Process which required little or no oxygen. This cycle produces Hydrogen Sulfate, Carbonic Acid, Sulpher Dioxide and Carbon Dioxide. This process usually takes about 27 to 29 days to complete, sometimes even longer. Now the New Nitrogen Cycle: You have the Total Ammonia, the TA is rapidly converted to NO3 (Nitrate) by the bacteria. At the same time Nitrite and Nitrate are converting back and fourth depending on how the compound is moved, the byproduct of this process is Nitrogen Gas and Carbon Dioxide. This entire process is Aerobic, anaerobic plays no parts in the process. There for, anaerobic condition does not apply here. One important element required to have a totally aerobic nitrogen cycle is the bacteria. The bacteria used here are the Right Now Bacteria (RN). The RN only works in an aerobic condition NOT anaerobic. Because of this rapid transformation perform by the RN bacteria a true 24hours cycling through all nitrogen compounds including Nitrates is achieved. The RN bacteria also perform the following: Aerobic reduction of Nitrates, Phosphates and potash. Reduction of Sludge Reduction of Oil normally on the surface of the aquarium. The second element required to complete the Aerobic Nitrogen Cycle is the carbon. The carbon used here is called Tri-base carbon. Unlike other carbon we normally use for aquarium, the tri-base carbon was developed specifically for the RN bacteria for use as a bio bed. As we all know biological filtration is all about available surface, the tri-base carbon has the largest available surface then any other carbon, silica sand, live rock and bio ball; plus a available carbon source. The third element is the pH Rock. The pH Adjustment Rock has 28 trace elements (not strontium) and has plenty of CaCO3 and MgCO3 for all corals. The pH rock is an optional setup, for fresh water application there is no need to use the pH rock. For saltwater or reef application, you can use the pH rock to buffer the pH and calcium. During this process the RN bacteria produce Carbonic Acid, Nitrous Acid and Nitric Acid, which is strong enough to react with the pH rock and dissolve the rock overtime to provide a continues supply of Calcium with other trace elements and elevate the Alkalinity at the same time, thus the problem associate with high Calcium and low Alkalinity does not occur here; the pH rock will raise Calcium level to over 450ppm. If you choose not to use pH rock, then the pH and Calcium will need to be maintaining through conventional means. By using the Totally Aerobic Nitrogen Cycle system, much equipment we now use to maintain a stable aquarium is eliminated. You will notice on the sample spec. there is no skimmer, no calcium reactor. The protein is taken out by the RN bacteria and converts to Nitrate then to Nitrogen Gas in a very short amount of time. We can now buffer the Calcium with a simple use of pH Rock instead of expensive Calcium reactor. The last element required is to have a proper flow rate. A flow rate is how many time the water turns over from the tank through the filter and back to the tank. The proper flow rate for this system is 10 times the total water volume, the bare minimum you need to have is 6 times the total water volume. Example: if you have a 75 gallon tank, your flow rate should be between 450 gph to 750gph, with 750 gph be the optimum number. The discharge where the water is pump back to the tank should be place above the water line not below. (see pic.) The reason is simple, remember one of the by product of this system is CO2. What would happen is too much CO2 is in the water? By place the return above the water line, the returning water will splash the surface thus drives off the CO2 and the space left by the CO2 in the water will be replace by fresh oxygen. We recommend for both the drain and return pipe should be a minimum of 1”PVC for tank from 30 to 100 gallons. 101 gallon or above should use 2” pipe for both drain and return. The bigger the pipe the faster the water drains and less pressure are put on the return pump. Below is the basic spec. of tank setup with the Aerobic Nitrogen Cycle, and a 220 gallon coral tank at 5 weeks old using this system. This conclude the introduction of the Totally Aerobic Nitrogen Cycle.