im not disputing the biological function of the cycling process. but to keep the LR alive with minimal loss of life NH3,4 must be kept under 1ppm or it defeats the purpose of spending the money on the LR. ammonia NH3 is more toxic than ammonium NH4, both change dependant on the pH. NH3 of .01ppm will show negetive effects on fish. the only test that really needs to be done is NH3,4 during the cycling which in turn keeps the NO2 under 20 ppm. NO3 isnt as detrimental as some may think, and the byproducts of this stage are the desired bacteria. other parameters/tests can be done during cycling to help guide the system along easier i.e. Ca, Mg, dKH. the ANN cycle is dealt with daily even after the initial cycling process, and happens everytime we feed. "cycling" LR is nothing more than getting it used to the little amount of water in the system, since it was used to the umpteen trillion gallons of water in the ocean. the things as mentioned before is the desired bacteria, hence the thread i started labeled bacteria. which by the way no one had the answer for. this hobby takes patience and virtue, nothing good happens fast in this hobby. ive "cycled" many tanks with minimal die off in short periods of time using the philosophy mentioned. but apparently i dont know what im talking about.