So here is a write up on a new biodegradable carbon source for Nitrate and Phosphate removal. Background.... The bilogical filtering going on in our tanks consume ammonia and nitrites which are bad for the inhabitants. There are anerobic bacteria that live in low oxygen zones of out tanks and live rock that house bacteria that consume nitrates. So there is some nitrate removal already going on. Phosphates are introduced mostly by food. We add it to our tanks. Phosphates themselves are not bad, but they feed alage and that outcompetes corals and can cover them. Also, PO4 inhibits skeletal growth in stony coral. So PO4 levels need to be very low... below .02. Alage can still grow at these very low levels, but so can coral. Most hobby test kits for PO4 are worthless. They only tell gross amounts and are not accurate at low levels. There are coil denitrators, sulfur denitrators and GFO for phosphates. Macro alagae and DSBs to get nutrient levels very low for demanding SPS coral tanks. Enter carbon dosing. There is a whole host of information on dosing carbon sources such as sugar, vinegar, vodka...ect. I'm not going into it here. The point of it is to feed certain bacteria that need nitrates and phosphates to grow... so as the bacteria colony grows, nitrates and phosphates are consumed and levels are lowered in the tank. These bacteria are then skimmed out by your skimmer and nutrients are exported. So you need a good skimmer to do this because out put will be increased. PROS... Food source for coral. Ultra low NO3 and PO4 levels can be achieved. CHEAP Can be run in place of refugiums and other nutrient export systems CONS... The bacteria consume oxygen as well and can actually sufocate the fish Can be overdosed killing everything Can cause bacteria blooms cyano blooms. Very tedious daily regiment. Even still many many people swear by it and have beautiful tanks as a result to show for it. Enter Bio Pellets. These have not been around for very long. A company introduced them several months ago called N and P bio pellets. It is a biodegradeable polymer than is a carbon source. The bacteria eat it and release the carbon and consume nitrates and phosphates in the mean time. It has recieved a lot of attention. You run them in media reactors such as BRS or TLF reactors. You run the reactor effluent to the skimmer where the bacteria is skimmed out and nutrients are exported. The pellets slime up and need to be tumbled to keep clean. Pros... No daily dosing No chance of overdosing No carbon source in the tank, just in the reactor. Not very expensive equipment. Cons... Needs high flows to keep from clogging not exactly cheap. Enter Warner Marine. I won't be shy about this. I love Warner Marine products. Jon Warner has very ingenious solutions, his equipment is top notch... and hell, just spend 5 minutes talking to Jon. He actually answers the phone, he is a true enthusiast, he is passionate, and he is a pretty sharp guy. So... when I heard he was putting out some bio pellets I was quite excited since I was looking into running some anyway. So they started from scratch and made a new pellet. Bio degradable polymer. Solid carbon source run in reactors. He has been running them for a while. Completely inert in salt water. Will never break down or leach carbon. These do not slime up and do not need high flows. He feels 100 gph for 500ml is plenty. He recommends lower amounts. Best of all is the $35 price tag for 500ml which is good for a 100g. consumption rates will vary but that just might last a year.... even doubled at $70 a year/100g is not a lot of money. So that is where we are at. EDIT... I changed the first post that is why the one below does not match.